The sequence of steps in binding hardcover books is shown in Fingure 10-19. These steps remain the same whether books are bound by hand or by machine.
FOLDING SIGNATURES AND ENDSHEETS. Large printed sheets are first folded to form signatures. A signature is a single sheet of paper folded to a certain number of pages. For example, one signature may yield 8, 16, or 32 individual pages when it is trimmed on three sides later in the binding process.
Two endsheets musts also be folded for each book. An endsheet is a strong piece of paper that has been folded in half to make four pages. The size of each folded endsheet is the same as the book's signatures.
Endsheets are glued to the front of the first signature and to the back of the last signature. This process is called tipping and should be done after the signatures have been gathered and sewn.
GATHERING SIGNATURES. Assembling signatures in proper sequence for binding is called gathering. Gathering signatures can be done by hand or with a gathering machine. The basic operation of a swing arm gathering machine is shown in Fingure 10-20.
SEWING. Fastening the assebled signatures together with thread is the next step in binding. Two basic sewing techniques are center(smythe) sewing and side-sewing. The centersewing technique is used to saddle sew individual signatures and fasten these signatures together. Loose sheets of paper are generally bound together by side-sewing.
Center Sewing. Signatures can be center-sewn by hand or by machine. To center-sew by hand place a piece of plywood on each side of the gathered signatures. Jog the assembly so that the center folds of all signatures are at the same level and flush with the top edges of the plywood sheets. In sert the assembly into a vise. The center folds should protrude about one-half inch above the jaws of the vise.